ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 374-02-45
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2020 №3

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textGusakov V.G.
Factors and methods of effective management. P. 3. Labor motivation and personnel retention, labor efficiency
There is an active search for ways and mechanisms to upgrade the agrarian economy in the Republic of Belarus and increase its efficiency in conditions of stiffen market situation, but no efficient mechanisms have yet been found. In this regard, we’ve carried out systematic research and prepared a research papers that answer many questions regarding raising the agricultural economy and market challenges. We believe that it can become the basis for accepting specific recommendations. The third paper dwells on the role, functions and significance of such fundamental factors of efficient agriculture management as labor motivation, personnel retention and labor efficiency.


Full textGusakov G.V., Karpovich N.V., Yonchik L.T., Lobanova L.A., Gusakova I.V.
International assessment of food security: global values and rating positions of Belarus
Food security largely determines stability of the entire economic system. Belarus is one of the states with self-sufficient production of food resources, and has also arranged a significant export potential in agri-food sector of economy. Experts from various international organizations, as well as thematic divisions of media companies, analyze the global food situation, including the one in Belarus. In this regard, third parties’ views on the Belarusian model of food security, its position in global rating, identification of strengths and weaknesses, comparison with the most successful states are of particular interest, which determined the study relevance. The article presents systematic analysis of the main international food safety ratings. A range of international assessments of efficiency of ensuring food security in the Republic of Belarus, as well as its structural elements are analyzed. Results and findings of foreign experts are compared with own techniques and methodological approaches to assessing the national food security of the Republic of Belarus. It has been determined that the Republic of Belarus was in the 36th place in the world or 20th place in the European region according to the GFSI index. At the same time, over the past two years, the country’s global position has increased by 12 points due to a significant improvement in terms of physical availability of food, as well as high indicators previously achieved in terms of economic accessibility, quality and safety of agricultural raw materials and finished foodstuffs. It has been noted that approaches to ensuring food security of the Republic of Belarus were highly appreciated by foreign experts. Use of the proposed results and proposals in practice will determine the prospects for increasing efficiency of ensuring the country’s food security, in particular, via improvement of economic and physical accessibility, as well as achieving the goal of the Doctrine of National Food Security of the Republic of Belarus until 2030. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production” for 2016-2020, subprogram 1 “AIC Economy”, as well as in accordance with the provisions, criteria and parameters of the Doctrine of National Food Security of the Republic of Belarus until 2030, approved by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus dated December 15, 2017 No. 962.

Full textLovkis Z.V., Morhunova A. M., Kandratenka S. A., Tamashevich S. E., Morhunov A. N.
Methodology for assessment of competitive potential of functional purpose confectionery in the context of global market trends
T he c onfectionery i ndustry i n t he w orld b elongs t o d ynamically d eveloping s ectors o f t he e conomy a nd fast-growing segments of the consumer market, due to the accelerated transformation of demand under influence of healthy nutrition and safety trends, as well as ability of the industry to adapt and develop considering consumer preferences through innovations and development of sustainable competitive strategies. New products with original consumer properties of functional purpose with a low sugar content and healthy fats are constantly appearing in the confectionery market. In this regard, assessment of products competitiveness should take into account the new qualities and availability to the consumer, which will allow commodity producers to form an efficient competitive strategy based on the analysis, plan innovative initiatives, and achieve success in promoting in the domestic and foreign markets. The paper presents the results of studying the trends in the world confectionery market, as well as marketing analysis of quality price parameters of products of domestic and foreign producers in the domestic market. An efficient methodology for assessing competitiveness of functional purpose confectionery products in terms of chocolate has been substantiated, and its testing results made it possible to identify the competitive advantages of domestic products in the field of organoleptic properties, nutritional value, functional efficiency and information content of packaging for the consumer. Use of the development in practice will make it possible to successfully position Belarusian chocolate as an original product of high quality, increase the added value of products for export, as well as form a stable consumer demand for healthy foods in the domestic market. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the Branch Scientific and Technical Program “Child Nutrition. Quality and safety” for 2016-2020, as well as the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production” for 2016-2020, subprogram 1 “AIC Economy”.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textKolbanova E.V.
Simultaneous direct ex vitro rooting and adaptation of the blue honeysuckle micro-sprouts (Lonicera Caerulea L. var. Kamtschatica)
Direct rooting of regenerative plants under ex vitro conditions is of great importance in agricultural biotechnology, as it leads to acceleration of micropropagation process by eliminating the stage of in vitro rooting and reduces the costs for obtaining healthy planting material of fruit and small-fruit crops. Possibility of direct ex vitro rooting and adaptation of blue honeysuckle microshoots at one stage with no stage of in vitro rooting has been determined. For ex vitro rooting and adaptation of honeysuckle microshoots, it is required to use non-sterile substrate: Sphagnum L. moss with a surface layer of peat (0.5 cm). The rate of rooted microshoots on this substrate makes 72-84 % during summer-autumn period and not less than 60 % during winter period. Thermal treatment of the peat surface layer and the use of aqueous IBA solutions at ex vitro rooting stage will be economically justified during propagation of individual varieties characterized by low proliferation activity in in vitro culture or low ex vitro rhizogenic activity, as well as breeding novelties requiring rapid propagation and obtaining of large amount of planting material. Thermal treatment of the peat surface layer allows increasing the rate of rooted microshoots of Volkhov variety by 10.7 %, Krupnoplodnaya variety by 13.2 %, Pavlovskaya variety by 3.8 % when rooting during spring period. Use of aqueous solutions of IBA increases the rate of rooted plants by 6.2-6.7 % in Vostorg and Krupnoplodnaya varieties when rooting during summer period. Carrying out of one cutting of ex vitro rooted microshoots and further cuttings of obtained material can be used to increase the yield of planting material of blue honeysuckle varieties. Ex vitro rooting and adaptation of blue honeysuckle microshoots at one stage with further ex vitro cutting increases production profitability by 3.5 and 12.9 times in comparison with conventional method of clonal micropropagation of blue honeysuckle.

Full textLyzhin A.S., Luk’yanchuk I.V.
Analysis of polymorphism of strawberry genotypes (Fragaria L.) according to the strawberry red root spot resistance gene RPF1 for identification of strawberry forms promising for breeding and horticulture
Red root spot (Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman) is one of the most important strawberry diseases in the temperate climate zone. Identification of forms, carrying resistance genes, is an important stage in breeding programs aimed at obtaining red root spot resistant strawberry varieties. Diagnostic DNA markers of target genes will increase reliability of identification and efficiency of strawberry breeding for the creation of resistant genotypes. The purpose of this study is analysis of polymorphism of wild species of Fragaria L. genus and strawberry varieties (F. × ananassa Duch.) according to the strawberry red root spot resistance gene Rpf1 using molecular markers. The research sunjects were the wild species F. orientalis Los., F. moschata Duch., F. ovalis Rydb., F. virginiana Duch. ssp. platypetala and strawberry varieties (F. × ananassa Duch.) of different ecological and geographic origin. Total genomic DNA of strawberry was extracted from the fresh leaves using the Puchooa method. To assess the allelic state of Rpf1 gene, SCAR-R1A marker (linked to the Rpf1 dominant allele) and OPO-16C marker (linked to the rpf1 recessive allele) have been used. SCAR-R1A marker was identified in wild species F. virginiana Duch. ssp. platypetala (vegetation region: British Columbia, Canada), pineapple strawberry varieties Bylinnaya and promising selected forms 62-41 (Bylinnaya × Feyyerverk), 65-17 and 65-24 (Olimpiyskaya nadezhda × Bylinnaya). These genotypes are characterized by heterozygous Rpf1rpf1 genotype according to Rpf1 gene (both markers are present in genotype) and can be used as red root spot resistance source in marker-assisted selection. In the remaining studied genotypes of strawberry, SCAR-R1A marker was not detected, which presumably indicated their homozygous recessive genotype rpf1rpf1 according to Rpf1 gene. The research results can be useful for breeders of strawberry and researchers of plant biodiversity of p. Fragaria.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheyko I.P., Sheyko R.I., Pristupa N.V., Yanovich E.A., Burnos A.C., Kazarovets I.V.
Comprehensive assessment of initial genotypes of pigs with high adaptive ability with the aim to create F1 parental pigs
Production of highly efficient parental forms L x Y and Y x L will be arranged for the first time in the Republic of Belarus, corresponding to world standards in terms of development and performance. Arrangement of own production of high-value animals will allow to ensure import substitution via industrial production and reduce import costs. The paper presents the results of comprehensive assessment of the initial genotypes of pigs with high adaptive capacity for accelerated creation of new final parental forms to be used in industrial pig breeding. Biochemical tests of blood of Landrace and Yorkshire breed of animals during their adaptation were analyzed. The reproductive ability of Landrace and Yorkshire boars has been evaluated. The patterns of inheritance of quantitative traits of Yorkshire and Landrace pigs performance were determined according to set of molecular genetic markers (RYR1, ESR and PRLR), which allow predicting their performance with high reliability degree. Animals were identified with preferred genotypes RYR1NN (100 %), ESRBB (12.7-30.0 %), PRLRАА (4.9- 47.5 %) associated with higher performance. Superiority of pigs was determined with genotypes ESRBB, PRLRАА in terms of multiple pregnancy and milk performance over animals of other genotypes by 7.8-9.3 and 9.0-13.2 %; 5.9-20.4 and 10.0- 21.0 %, respectively. Creation of breeding herds of highly productive animals, ensuring production of hybrid parental pig with the required breeding and genetic parameters of productivity based on new biotechnological techniques and methods, ensuring selection of valuable breeding material and, therefore, the maximum effect of breeding, will promote increase of competitiveness of domestic pig breeding. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the State Research and Development Program “High Technologies and Engineering” for 2016-2020, subprogram 1 “Innovative Biotechnologies - 2020”.

Full textRoshchin V. A.
Use of feed nitrogen by young pigs of meat genotypes, depending on metabolizable energy and available essential amino acids level in diet
In the system of high-grade nutrition of pigs, the completeness of compound feeds with metabolizable energy and essential amino acids is of paramount importance. Breeding of modern breeds and lines of pigs with high meat productivity makes it necessary to study the peculiarities of providing these nutrients for the animals. It is known that different breeds of pigs, particularly those with different productivity trends, use dietary protein in different ways. Study of features of nitrogen use by pigs of bred in the republic breeds and lines in compound feeds with different completeness of essential amino acids, in particular, lysine and its ratio with metabolizable energy, is relevant for development of standards for their amino acid nutrition in order to maximize their genetic potential of high meat productivity. The paper presents experimental materials on study of the dynamics of nitrogen deposition in body of animals, its release into environment, as well as peculiarities of deposition and use of it for the synthesis of muscle tissue in body of pigs at fattening of three genotypes - Duroc breed, Large white and Belarusian meat breeds. It has been determined that limiting factors of protein synthesis in pigs with adequate level of metabolizable energy are the intake of the required amount of available amino acids with the feed and the genetically determined rate of its deposition. Feed nitrogen was used better by pigs of the Belarusian meat breed and Duroc in comparison with pigs of Large white breed. The most efficient use of feed nitrogen was shown by gilts fed with compound feed with 0.71 g of available lysine per 1 MJ of metabolizable energy. The data obtained during the research on feed nitrogen used by animals of meat genotypes reveal the mechanism of interaction of energy and amino acid nutrition, which is of great importance for development of pig feeding standards considering the breed and trend of productivity. Acknowledgments. The research has been carried out within the framework of the State Program of applied research “Animal Breeding and Veterinary Medicine”.

Full textKrasochko P.A., Zhavoronok S.V., Barysavets D.S., Krasochko P.P., Alatortseva G.I., Prokopenkova T.M., Davydov V.V., Anisko L.A., Luhverchik L.N., Zhuravleva E.S., Buchukuri D.V., Zverev V.V.
Development of ELISA test kits for semi-quantitative detection of anti-HEV antibodies in pigs in the Republic of Belarus
Viral hepatitis E infection affects up to 80-100 % of domestic pigs worldwide and is characterized by high seroprevalence among domestic pigs in temperate climate countries. Epizootic monitoring of HEV infection is insufficient in the Republic of Belarus due to lack of the required number of available and inexpensive diagnostic ELISA kits with good sensitivity and specificity. In this regard, research on development of domestic ELISA kit for semi-quantitative detection of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in pigs with subsequent assessment of seroprevalence to HEV in pig population in the Republic of Belarus is relevant. The results of studies on development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for semi-quantitative determination of class G immunoglobulins to HEV in pig blood serum using recombinant proteins, including immunodominant amino acid sequences corresponding to the ORF2 and ORF3 proteins of HEV genotype 3 are presented in the paper. The optimal concentration for sorption of ORF2 and ORF3 proteins has been determined, which is 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity of this test kit makes 94.8 %, and the diagnostic specificity makes 100 %. Coefficients of variation being the criterion for assessing the intra-serial and inter-serial reproducibility of this test kit, make 3.5 % and 12.4 %, respectively, which allows to obtain reproducible results and identify specific anti-HEV antibodies in all positive samples of pig blood serum. When studying 1235 pig sera samples from various pig farms of Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilev regions, seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies has been determined in 168 or 13.6 % of animals. The described diagnostic method can be widely used in science and practice for the further study of seroprevalence of anti-HEV. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the Interstate program of innovation cooperation of States - participants of the CIS up to 2020, with the financial support of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation, the project ID RFMEFI61316X0 061, and the State Committee for Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textKruk I. S., Chigarev Yu. V., Romanyuk V.
Determination of kinematic parameters of falling drops of standard solution of pesticides during spraying, taking into account geometric dimensions variability
Expansion of range of applied pesticides and liquid mineral fertilizers necessitates continuous improvement of spray nozzle design, allowing to create a monodisperse spray and ensure high-quality application of chemical agents at low doses and minimal losses. The issue of studying the process of falling drops with varying geometric dimensions remains sore. Studies of drop movement in air environment make it possible to determine the falling speed and coordinates on the treated surface, to substantiate the design, dimensions, optimal operating modes and parameters of sprayers and devices for protecting the spray cone from direct exposure to wind, which is especially important at the design stage of sprayer for field spraying machines. The paper presents simulation of process of falling drops of pesticide standard solution in resisting environment, considering geometric dimensions variability. An equation for drop radius variability depending on the unit motion horizontal transverse variability, formula for variability of intensity of drop decrease depending on the initial conditions and state of environment are obtained. Dependence between coefficients of drop displacement along the horizontal transverse to the unit movement axis and time is obtained, expressions for variability of drop radius depending on the horizontal displacement and the equation for variability of velocity and vertical coordinate of drop movement on time are presented. The coefficient of mass transfer from the drop surface is determined depending on the resistance coefficient, initial velocity, medium density at the border of drop and plant medium subjected to treatment. The results obtained can be used in mechanical engineering for design and testing of sprayers and nozzles, design of wind protection devices for spray cones of standard solutions of pesticides in field sprayers, in simulation of process of drop movement with varying mass.

Full textPetrovets V.R., Mikheev D.A., Gnilozub V.P.
Efficiency of pelleting of sugar beet seeds in centrifugal pelleting machine
Seed pelleting is an efficient way to improve the sowing quality of seeds. Diverse positive effect of pelleting is mostly noticeable for beet seeds. Increased size and spherical shape of seeds with shell allows to use precision seeding technology, as well as fertilizers and protective agents being part of the shell, increase their sowing potential and finally increase yields. To obtain pelleted seeds, it is required to use a specialized line with a seed pelleting machine being the main equipment. An improved design of centrifugal batch-operated seed pelleting machine has been developed and manufactured in Belarusian State Agricultural Academy. To activate the process of rolling the shell in the mixing chamber of the pelleting machine, it was proposed to use separately installed blades. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the main structural and technological parameters of the pelleting machine has been determined to ensure the highest quality of pelleted seeds. Seeds of sugar beet of the domestic variety “Polybel” obtained in a favorable climate were selected for experimental studies. Finished mixture based on bentonite clay was selected as a filler of the seed coat. After the coat formation, the insect-fungicidal dressing agent Prestige was applied to the seeds. The seeds of sugar beet of the domestic variety “Polybel” obtained on experimental pelleting machine showed high results in germination and yield. They are comparable to imported sugar beet hybrids. Pelleting of seeds of domestic varieties of sugar beet on the territory of the Republic of Belarus can become a good alternative to imported pelleted seeds, especially considering their cost, which significantly exceeds the cost of untreated seeds.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textSmagin D.А., Smolyak А.А., Smagina М.N.
Methods for calculating the duration of baking of minced meat products during heat treatment in convection ovens
Saving energy resources, optimizing production processes and ensuring high quality of finished products are important tasks facing the food industry of the Republic of Belarus at the present stage of social and economic development. From this point of view, the current direction of scientific activity is development of methods for predicting duration of heat treatment of food products, which will allow to increase the level of production planning, implement production processes rationally, ensure production of finished products with high consumer parameters with no underheating or overheating of material of the processed bodies, and decrease the cost of energy resources for thermal processes. The paper proposes the method for theoretical calculation of baking duration for minced meat products in direct contact of the heating medium with the processed body in modern convection units. When developing a theoretical calculation, heat transfer processes are divided into internal and external. When describing internal heat transfer processes, changes in the thermal and physical characteristics of the material of the processed body are considered, determined by mass transfer processes and physical and chemical changes in structural elements with conversion of raw minced meat into finished product with baked crust. The processes of external heat exchange are described according to the operating parameters of modern convection ovens used in small and medium- sized enterprises of food industry and public catering. The values of duration of heat treatment on the example of products made of chicken mince at different temperatures of the heating medium are obtained. Special rod cassettes with a rigid thermocouple attachment design have been developed to ensure correct experiment. Deviations of baking duration values between the theoretically calculated and experimentally obtained values range from 1.49 to 4.44 % for different temperatures of heating medium, which indicates the efficiency of the developed technique. The proposed technique for calculating the duration of baking process for minced meat products when heated will allow optimizing production processes, saving energy resources and obtaining finished products with high consumer parameters. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production”.

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