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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2007 №1

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G.
Science substantiation of the implementation of the State Program on the revival and development of a village for 2005–2010
In the article the main advantages and the results of the State Program on the Rivival and Development of a village for 2005–2010 during 2005–2006 are estimated on scientific grounds. A practical role of agrarian science is shown in implementing the Program, in stabilizing the economic development of the agroindustrial complex, and in improving the competitive capacity of the national agroindustrial production. Oversights and shortcomings in performing the measures of the Program by the local authorities are analyzed. Recommendations on the improvement of the purposeful direction and the use of budgetary funds for implementing Program measures are given. A list of the scientific and technological, fundamental and industrial branch programs, which are acting at the National Academy of Sciences and are meant for elaborating competitive methods for accelerated innovation development of agribusiness, is presented. The objectives and tasks of organizing five scientific-practical centers (SPC) at the Department of the NAS of Belarus are outlined: SPC for agriculture, SPC for animal husbandry, SPC for potato growing and fruit and vegetable growing, and SPC for food. The outlook functions of their development and also the strategy criteria, which these centers should meet, are defined.

Full textChukholsky P.G.
Organizational models of agroindustrial complexes and the mechanism of their functioning
Methodical approaches and proposals for creating the mechanism of functioning varions agroindustrial complexes are described. These are the material of recommendation that can be used by the appropriate managing bodies.

Full textBatova N.N.
Directions of rising the competitiveness of linen products
In the article the theoretical aspects of competitiveness are considered. It is a complex economic category that is characterized by different criteria on different levels of organization of the economic system. The structure of a linen subcomplex of Belarus is presented and the features of creation of quality and product competitiveness in the agrarian sphere are revealed. Special attention is given to the dependences of crop and quality at sweeping in different phases of maturing. The designed by the author technique of estimation of competitiveness of linen processing enterprises, taking into account economic interests of both a customer and linen fibre manufacturers is presented. The directions of rise of competitiveness of linen products at the main stages of its production are defined. Special attention is given to the possibilities of alternative usage of linen products not only for production of textile items, but also for medical purposes, as food, fodder resources, and also in building and chemical productions, in motor industry, etc., which could essentially increase the efficiency of operation of the linen subcomplex of Belarus.

Full textRastorgouev P.V., Pashtovaya I.G.
Assurance of the quality and safety of milk production on the basis of applying the principles of NASSR
Production of quality and safety milk is the important agrarian problem due to the social significance of this product for the Republic. At the same time, the quality of milk remains on the low level, which is caused by the lack of proper technological processes in the branch. Sanitary cleaning, milking machine function and maintenance, hygiene conditions in the farms, production discipline are the main reasons for the low quality of milk. One of the modern effective methods of production of safety milk there could be the application of the principles of the NASSR in the agricultural enterprises. This system on the basis of the complex analysis and the finding of the most “narrow places” of the production process, which are on a constant control, make the process of the production transparent, namely, controllable, thus ensuring the safety of a manufactured product.

Full textSaiganov A.S., Zelenovski A.A.
Development strategy of agroservices, processing and consumer co-operation in the system of agroindustrial complex
The article substantiates the strategy directions of the re-equipment of agriculture, the enhancement of the efficiency of mechanized industrial services of agricultural commodity producers, the creation and functioning of the second hand machinery market, the organization of firm technical services, the development of processing industry branches and the sphere of consumer co-operation in the agroindustrial complex of the Republic of Belarus. Their implementation will allow a more successful solution of those problems that have been stated by the State Program on the revival and development of a village for 2005–2010.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textBosak V.N.
Role of nitrogen fertilizers in making the cereals productivity on the turf sod-podzolic light loamy soil
Nitrogen fertilizers proved the most influence on the grain yield and quality of winter and spring cereals on the improved sod-podzolic light loamy soil. TheapplicationofNThe application of N60+30+30 was most effective for winter cereals (winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye), spring wheat and feed barley as well as of N60 for brewing barley and oats using phosphoros and potassium fertilizers.

Full textKasiyanchik S.A., Ustinova A.M.
Yield and the content of the basic nutritious elements in perennial cereal grasses in cultivating on dried peat-bog soils
At present, special attention should be paid to the problems on maintaining the fertility of peat-bog soils and on enhancing the crop yield of agricultural cultures, as well as to those on the regularities of formation and accumulation of nutrients in plants due to the yield forming factors, including fertilizers. These problems are considered in the present article. Study is made of the influence of different-level phosphorous-potassium and nitrogen fertilizers on the crop yield and the content of the basic nutritious elements in perennial grasses that are being cultivated on the dried peat-bog soil of a lowland type of the Belarusian Poozeriya, included into the crop rotation after the drainage system has been reconstructed. As a result of the studies, it has been found that N 80-120 P 50-70 K 230-300 is an optimal dose of mineral fertilizers for perennial grasses. This provides a basis for obtaining 112.0-161.4 c/ha of dry substance or 66.3-95.5 c/ha of feed units or a profit of 1 kg of fertilizers of 19.4-24.4 kg of dry substance. In addition, this dose promotes the increase in the concentration of the basic nutritious elements in plants. First-hay crop grasses contain general nitrogen – 2.68-3.38% of dry substance. At the same time, second-hay crop grasses contain an excess of general nitrogen and potassium. It is also established that optimal doses of mineral fertilizers exert a favourable influence on the ability of perennial grasses to withsfand the unfavourable conditions of the vegetation period.

Full textTsybul’ka N.N.
Accumulation of vegetable rests by agricultural crops depending on the productivity levels
Results of studying the accumulation of vegetative rests on sod-podsolic soils of different erodibitity are presented. It is established that their quantity depends on the general efficiency of crops. Soils of different erodibility and an exposition of a slope render an indirect influence on the weight of vegetative rests, namely, through the change of productivity. The obtained quantitative parameters of the accumulation of vegetative rests on the levels of cultures productivity are recommended to be used as normative parameters when estimating the balance of organic substance in soils, when optimizing the structure of crops and crop rotations, when developing recommendations on the increase of soil fertility and on regulating the of circulation of nutrients in different soil – ecological conditions of land utilization.

Full textVildflush I.R., Tsyganova A.A.
Efficiency of the application of the microelements and growth regulators when cultivating winter rye on sod-podzolic light loamy soils in the north-western part of Belarus
The ditside roost application with cooper, zinc and complex microfertilizers “Mikom” of winter rye in the phase forming a stem on the background of N20 P60 + N50+20 increased the grain yield of winter rye by 2.7, 2.4 and 4.0 c/ha, respectively. The application of growth regulators: agrostimulin and emistim C on the background of N70 P45 K60 increased the grain yield of winter rye by 3.2 and 4.3 c/ha. It is established that the high indices of profitableness and net income were C 129.5-143.4% and 169.7-187.2 thousands roubles per hectare, respectively, when using the growth regulators agrostimulin and emistim.

Full textZabara Yu.M., Yankovskaya G.P.
Efficiency of the decis combination with herbicides on green pea seedings (Pisum sativum L.
In the experiments conducted in 2001–2002 at the Institute of the Vegetable Growing of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, the insecticides decis, carate and also the efficiency of combination of decis in a tank mixture with herbicides imazetapir, bentazon, phizalofop-P-tefuril and fluarifob-T-butil were tested in the vegetation period on sowings of Adagumsky cultivar green pea. Biologic and economic efficiency and also plant damage by pests were also under test. It was found that none of tank pesticide mixtures produced a negative effect on pea plant standing and their biometric indices. It was found that the application of tank mixtures of imazetapir + decis (0.75 + 0.2 l/ha) and bentazon + decis (1.5 + 0.5 + 0.2 l/ha) for control of annual, dicotyledonous weeds produced their destruction by 90.5–93.7%. It was noted that the damage of green pea seeding by tubercle weevils had decreased by 68–78%. In these variants compared to the control (1.24 t/ha), the most yield increase (2.22–2.71 t/ha) or (179–219%) was obtained. The use of herbicides/insecticide mixtures in the production presents the opportunity to combine two technological operations and to ensure effective control of green pea against weeds and tubercle weevils, which results in decreasing monetary expenses for seed production.

Full textCherneckaya A.G., Valetov V.V.
Early diagnostics of sorts of black currants (Ribes nigrum L.), on the stability to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae (Schw) Bert et Gurt)
For the first time in the conditions of Belarus, the anatomical peculiarities of the black currants leaf of Belarusian selection were studied in connection to the resistance to powdery mildew in the dynamics of three age groups of plants according to 20 anatomical signs. The connection between the anatomical peculiarities of the black currants leaf structure and resistance to powdery mildew was investigated and analysed, the anatomical criteria of black currants resistance to an agent of powdery mildew were shown with the help of different variants of statistic processing. The anatomical method of early diagnostics of resistance to powdery mildew of black currants sorts, based on the dependence of the development of disease on the sizes of stoma in low epidermis and low epidermis thickness of the black currants leaf, was developed for the first time in the world practice.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textPerashvili I.I.
Productive qualities of three-kind growers derived from the sows of different-growth intensity
As a result of the studies, it is determined that the on-feeding-cubs derived from early sows are notable for high ripeness and remuneration of fodder by products. So, the weanlings, derived from early sows of Belarusian Black-Motley and Big White kind of pigs surpassed their equals by weight by 0.4 kg (4.9%) and 0.6 kg (7.2%, P < 0.05). The positive tendency of the outstrip growth took place with three-kind growers derived from intensively growing sows of Big White kind of pigs and Landras kind. It is revealed that in industrial farm conditions the final hybrids, derived from the Belarusian Black-Motley kind compared to the weanlings of sows of Big White kind of pigs and Landras kind were characterized by better feed and meat qualities. The mixed sows growth intensity didn’t influence much slaughter qualities of herd: the differences determined turned out to be false and unessential.

Full textGavrichenko N.I.
Endocrynic status of cows with a stimulated sexual cycle with regard to fertilization, multiple pregnancy and the pregnancy course
The dynamics of FSH, LH, TTH, T3, T4 and sexual hormones in cows with a stimulated sexual cycle in view of fertilization and a fertility level are studied. Essential changes of secretion and allocation of FSH and LH (in particular LH) in connection with the hormonal stimulation of sexual hunting and polyovulation are proved. Obviously, the character of these changes defines (or reflects) success or failure of fertilization and well-being of current of pregnancy. High contents of FSH and LH within 1–2 days after hunting, 5–7 days of a sexual cycle and at the beginning of recognition by mother of pregnancy (15 day) causes significant changes in the synthesis and secretions of sexual and tireoid hormones. It can cause a subsequent early destruction of a germ or abortion.

Full textShareiko N.A., Bazyleva A.M.
Influence of different light regimes on the productivity indices of breeding broilers of Cross COBB-500
The most important tasks of industrial poultry farming are the increase of poultry farming products (eggs and meat of poultry), the improvement of their quality and the cost production. This is bonud up with solving a set of problems, among which the necessity to develop energy – and resource – saving technologies of breeding chicken-broilers should be considered central. In this respect, of great significance is the introduction of light energy-saving regimes into the production. The article presents the results on studying the influence of light regimes on the growth, development, fodder consumption and productivity of chicken-broilers of Cross COBB-500.

Full textNaletko A.A., Radchikov V.F., Gurin V.K.
New feed additive based on raw materials in steer rations
It was established that a mixed feed supplemented with a peat additive of 13 and 20% had no negative influence on feed consumption, indices of rumen and nutrient digestibility, and biochemical blood indices. The use of additive provided a growth of a daily gain of 894–903 g per 7.8–7.9 c of FV of feed expenses, a relative biological meat value was 5.6–8.1% higher than of that of a control one.

Full textSkurat E.K., Sivolotskaya V.A., Degtjarik S.M., Grebneva E.I., Benetskaya N.A., Kuzmionkova O.V.
Protection of fishes against cestodoses under the conditions of pond-fish farms and natural waters of Belarus
A review of cestodoses of fishes in pond-fish farms, natural waters, and reservoirs of Belarus is given. Regional characteristics are noted: incidence and degree of infestation by cestodes of the major commercial fishes, invasion dynamics by the age group of hosts, seasonal dynamics, and others. It is indicated that ligulosis is of the most serious threat in pond-fish farms in Belarus. Data on treatment and prophylaxis of cestodoses and also on fish culture measures are presented.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textPodskrebko M.D.
Determination of the efficiency of arable units at different modes of power transmission from a tractor engine to a working machine
The formula for determination of the efficiency of ploughes is derived and presented. The complete efficiency of a plough is divided into the technological one, which characterizes the energy perfection of working elements; the mechanical one, which characterizes the perfection of plough design, and the agricultural one, which determines a degree of coincidence of the obtained ploughing quality to the one required of field management. To determine the efficiency of an arable unit, the graph theory is used, which presents a unit in the form of a signal graph depending on a way of realizing the engine power. The method of determining the efficiency of a plough and that of a unit as a whole are described. The developed method allows one to determine the efficiency structure of an arable unit and machine, to find energy losses, and to solve the problems on improving the design of arable units on the scientific grounds.

Full textDvornik V.A.
Effectiveness of ventilation systems improved during reconstruction of pig farms
It is determined that providing the perfect microclimate in buildings and energy spends cut for this climate in the winter period is possible if technological qualities of fence constructions are higher from 0.97 to 2.5 m2 °C and natural ventilation is used. Microbe semination of the buildings for farrow and weanlings growing during this period is 1.4–3.6 times lower. During the summer the combined usage of natural and imitation air ventilation is necessary.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textGrudanov V.Ya., Brench A.A., Rabchinskij A.M., Barabanschikov M.Yu.
Perfection of the process of thermal treatment of caramel malt
Technological features of thermal treatment of caramel malt for preparation of dark grades are investigated. On the basis of the analysis of literature data in the field of designing devices for thermal treatment of malt, a new direction in designing heating drums is offered. A laboratory installation for preparation of caramel malt is developed and made. The basic technological parameters of malt changing during thermal processing and describing its quality are investigated. On the basis of the obtained experimental data, it is established that the samples of malt on physical and chemical parameters correspond to the requirements made for the quality of caramel malt, and the obtained on the experimental installation caramel malt can be used for production of dark grades of beer. As a result of the performed researches, the developed installation is recommended for industrial manufacturing and a further introduction.

Full textKirkor M.A., Shulyak V.A., Romashihin P.A., Smusenok A.G.
New equipment for production of a powder from cocoa-shells
In the article, the results of research of a new combined installation for preparation of a powder from cocoa-shells are discussed. The analysis of the processes of milling and classification of cocoa-shells in a new installation is made, and fractional compositions of a ready powder are determined, depending on the frequency of rotation of a rotor of a qualifier, on the basis of which the quality indicators of the process of classification are obtained.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Petr Ivanovich Alsmik (To the 100th Anniversary).

Full text
Nikolai Ivanovich Smeya (To the 75th Anniversary)

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