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The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2021 №1

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus


Full textGruzinskaya Y. V.
Analysis of institutional arrangements of financial institutions in the national economy of Belarus
Theoretical and methodological foundations of institutional policy define reduction of uncertainty in activities of organizations and individuals as the main task of financial institutions by establishing stable mechanisms of interaction between participants in public relations. Coordination of economic interests at all levels is performed by both formal and informal institutions, while creation and modification of formal institutions largely depends on the informal influence of representatives of various social macrogroups. The list of the most important macroeconomic institutions includes: institutions of macroeconomic regulation; market institutions; monetary institutions, fiscal institutions, investment institutions; institutions of law; institutions for regulation of foreign economic activity. Whereas, the importance and peculiarities of financial policy in the institutional system determine the special importance of financial institutions, primarily in implementation of measures aimed at ensuring sustainable social and economic development. The paper dwells on practice of functioning of the financial system of Belarus. The value of a unique mega-regulator for financial transactions, exchanging assets and risks has been determined. It has been substantiated that creation of such a supranational body is possible subject to formation of an integrated financial market for the EAEU member states. Impact of the main instruments of financial policy (Belarusian ruble exchange rate, refinancing rate, money supply, required reserves of second-tier banks, monetary policy stability, informal influence measures, agreements, transactions, open market operations, tariffs, duties, restrictions, decrees, orders, guarantees) on the national economy has been considered, proposals for improving financial instruments within the framework of the current institutional mechanism has been substantiated. Use of the proposed results and proposals in practice for improving institutional mechanisms, including a range of official regulations and informal institutions, will promote improvement of the situation with the balance of payments, assessment of fiscal risks and problem assets.

Full textKireyenka N. V.
Models of agrarian business development in international practice
In conditions of the world economy globalization, regional trade and economic integration of countries, and increased sectoral competition, agricultural business remains a strategically important branch of the national economy of any state. Its activities are based on the regulatory legal framework for creation and functioning of agro-industrial complex entities, state regulation and support of agriculture, development of rural areas, food export incentive, formation of external and internal trade infrastructure. The world agrarian economy demonstrates the use of various models of efficient agro-industrial production management, providing for solution of national food security and increasing the export potential of the industry. The paper presents typology of agriculture by types of land use at various levels of social and economic development of countries, identifies the main world producers, exporters and importers of agri-food products. Review of the state regulation system and support of commodity producers in Australia, Argentina, Brazil, the European Union, India, Indonesia, Canada, China, Russia, and the United States has been carried out taking into account implementation of the international rules of the World Trade Organization. Various types of agricultural business models, sales systems, depending on production specialization of individual states, regions, enterprises and aimed at development of vertical integration, combination of marketing and logistics functions within one company, changes in the commodity structure along the sales channels in the domestic and foreign markets, have been systematized. The competitive advantages of the Republic of Belarus in the context of development of priority areas of agricultural business have been substantiated and the key risks having significant impact on the strengthening of production, sales and export potential have been analyzed. The issues Covered in the paper are of interest in preparation of draft state programs for social and economic development of the national agro-industrial complex, strategy in the field of export of agricultural products and food products for the period up to 2025. Acknowledgments. The study was carried as part of the project “Dissemination of business models for modern rural areas of Belarus and Ukraine” under Agreement between RISE – Joint Stock Company “Research Institutes of Sweden” and educational institution “Belarusian State Agrarian Technical University” (2020–2021).

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textPrymak I. D., Fedoruk Y. V., Karaulna V. N., Yezerkovska L. V., Panchenko O. B., Pokotylo I. A., Hornovska S. V., Panchenko I. A., Fedoruk N. N., Obrazhyy S. V.
Impact of basic tillage systems and fertilization on agrochemical indices of soil fertility in the right bank of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
The paper presents the results of stationary multifactor field experiment on study of the mutual impact of various systems of soil deep and surface tillage in combination with various levels of organic and mineral fertilizers application on crop rotation performance, as well as on a number of agrochemical indicators of black soil fertility. Researches were carried out as a stationary field experiment on the experimental field of Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University in 2013-2018. During the crop rotation in all the studied tillage methods, especially mouldboardless and disking tillage, the hydrolytic acidity of the arable layer increased with increase in fertilizer rates, and the amount of bases absorbed, saturation degree, level of exchangeable calcium and magnesium cations decreased, but in most cases these changes were not significant. Systematic mouldboardless and disking tillage enhance the topsoil heterogeneity in relation to agrochemical indicators of its fertility. Heterogeneity increases with increase in the level of applied fertilizers. With the mouldboard tillage during the crop rotation period at unfertilized areas, the largest part of humus loss in the arable layer is observed in the top, and the smallest - in its bottom parts; the opposite pattern was observed on fertilized areas at the highest rate. With mouldboardless and disking tillage, directly opposite patterns were observed in comparison with mouldboard tillage. An annual application of 8 t/ha of manure + N76P64K57 stabilizes the humus state of the arable soil layer when carrying out differentiated and disking tillage in crop rotation. Fertilization rate of 12 t/ha of manure + N95P82K75 for these tillage options a significant increase in humus and total nitrogen reserves is provided.

Full textRadivon V. A., Zhukovsky A. G.
Development and species composition of septariosis in crops of spring triticale varieties in Belarus
Septoria leaf and head blotch is the most economically significant disease of grain crops in Belarus, as it is annually observed in crops and is highly harmful. Spring triticale is a perspective crop in our country with a high yield potential and grain quality, which, as known, decreases due to diseases development. There is little information on the varieties disease susceptibility, development peculiarities and species composition of septoria blotch of spring triticale, which determined the relevance of our research subject. The paper presents the results of studies in 2015-2019 on susceptibility of spring triticale varieties Uzor, Doublet, Sadko to septoria leaf and head blotch, peculiarities of the disease development depending on weather conditions were revealed and the species composition of pathogens of septoria leaf blotch was determined. It has been determined that severity of septoria leaf blotch by the end of early – soft dough of grain stage reached 36.6 %. Based on calculation of area under the disease progress curve, no significant differences were found in severity of septoria leaf blotch depending on the variety. Severity of septoria head blotch reached 22.7 % by the end of growing season. Direct dependences of septoria leaf and head blotch development on the amount of precipitation have been established, and a close correlation between the severity of septoria head blotch and septoria leaf blotch has been revealed. The species composition of septoria leaf blotch is represented by the fungi Parastagonospora nodorum, Parastagonospora avenae f. sp. triticae and Zymoseptoria tritici. The dominant species was P. nodorum, its frequency reached 99.2 % depending on the variety and growth stage of spring triticale, the second most common fungus was P. avenae f. sp. triticae - up to 58.6 %. For the first time in our country, in-depth research has been carried out to study septoria leaf and head blotch of spring triticale, the results obtained will serve as the basis for development of a protection system.

Full textLyzhin A. S., Savel’eva N. N.
Polymorphism of wild species of р. Malus MILL. according to powdery mildew resistance genes
Powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. E tEv.) Salm.) – is one of the most widespread apple diseases in world. Identification of forms, carrying resistance genes, is an important stage in breeding programs aimed at obtaining powdery mildew resistant apple varieties. Diagnostic DNA markers of target genes will increase reliability of identification and efficiency of apple breeding for the creation of resistant genotypes. The purpose of this study was molecular genetic testing of wild species of genus Malus Mill. According to Pl-1, Pl-w and Pl-d powdery mildew resistance genes for revealing polymorphism of the studied loci and identification of valuable genotypes for breeding. The study subjects were the wild species of genus Malus Mill. of different ecological and geographic origin. The Pl-1 gene was identified using AT20-SCAR marker, Pl-w gene - EM M02 marker, Pl-d gene - EM DM01 marker. AT20-SCAR marker (Pl-1 gene) was identified in 37.3 % of genotypes. EM M02 marker (Pl-w gene) was detected in 16.4 % of the studied forms. EM DM01 marker (Pl-d gene) is present in 10.4 % of the analyzed forms. At least one of the studied molecular markers is present in the genome of 52.2 % of apple wild species. The Pl-1 gene in apple wild species is most spread in Baccatae series, the Pl-w gene - in Baccatae and Sieboldinae series, the Pl-d gene - in Orientalis series. Wild species M. baccata 2319, M. mandshurica 41947, M. sachalinensis 85, M. sachalinensis 97, M. purpurea v. pendula 2396 are characterized by combination of Pl-1 and Pl-w genes; M. turkmenorum 13283 and M. turkmenorum 29 421 - Pl-1 and Pl-d genes; M. denticulata 29416 - Pl-w and Pl-d genes, which allows to recommend them as promising complex sources of high powdery mildew resistance for breeding.


Full textKrivoruchko A. Y., Yatsyk O. A., Saprikina T. Y., Petukhova D. D.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) with productivity in Romanov sheep breed
Genetic technologies used in breeding of small ruminants requires searching for new molecular markers of productive traits. The most effective for this is genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with economically valuable traits. The paper presents results of study of associations of the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a rank assessment according to complex of productive traits (super-elite) in Romanov sheep using DNA biochips Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip 600K. Eleven SNPs h ave b een f ound h aving s ignificant c orrelation with the animals belonging to the “super-elite” group. Five substitutions are located in the genes introns, six are related to intergenic polymorphisms. The highest reliability of association with productivity was observed in substitution rs410516628 (р = 3,14 · 10-9) located on the 3rd chromosome. Substitution rs422028000 on 2nd chromosome differs with the fact that in the “super-elite” group it was found in 90 % of haplotypes. Polymorphisms rs411162754 (1st chromosome) and rs417281100 (10th chromosome) in our study turned out to be the rarest – only in “super-elite” group and only in a quarter of haplotypes. The genes located near the identified SNPs are mainly associated with metabolic and regulatory processes. Our study has identified several new candidate genes with polymorphism probably associated with the ranking in terms of productivity in Romanov sheep: LTBP1, KCNH8, LMX1B, ZBTB43, MSRA, CHPF, PID1 and DNER. The results obtained create a theoretical basis for further study of candidate genes affecting implementation of phenotypic traits in Romanov sheep. The revealed polymorphisms associated with the productive traits of sheep can be used in practical breeding as molecular and genetic markers for selection of parental pairs.

Full textDudarchuk А. N.
Peculiarities of sheep pathogenesis at associative invasions of gastrointestinal tract
In the Republic of Belarus, primarily in farms with imperfect technology, parasitic diseases of sheep are widespread, including: nematodes of gastrointestinal tract, strongyloidosis, eimeriosis, monieziosis, trichocephalosis, cryptosporidiosis, etc. Study of impact of associative parasitosis of sheep on the immunobiological reactivity of animal body has recently become more and more theoretical and practical for rational use of drugs in treatment of these diseases. The purpose of research is to study peculiarities of sheep pathogenesis at associative invasions of gastrointestinal tract. The study was carried out at farm “Villia-agro”, Kobrin district, Brest region. Lambs of 2-4 months of age spontaneously infested with parasites of gastrointestinal tract have been selected. Parameters of cellular immunity were determined: number of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, level of rosette-forming T- and B-lymphocytes and humoral immunity: circulating immune complexes, total protein, protein fractions, including proteins of C3 complement system and immunoglobulins, macro and microelements (calcium, phosphorus and iron) in blood serum. With spontaneous invasion of sheep by associations of parasites of gastrointestinal tract, the following changes have been determined: significant decrease in number of lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, concentration of total protein, albumin, - β- and g-globulins, calcium and phosphorus. Significant increase in leukocytes: Eosinophils and stab neutrophils, a1-globulins , circulating immune complexes. All this together indicates disturbance in functioning of body’s immunity and requires immediate appropriate treatment aimed both at destroying associations of parasites of gastrointestinal tract and restoring immune system of animal’s body. These studies will form basis for development of rational system for therapeutic and preventive measures for associative parasitosis of sheep in the Republic of Belarus, which will reduce economic damage from these diseases and improve quality of livestock products. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state reseacrh and techincal program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production for 2016–2020”, subprogram “Animal breeding and pedigree work”.

Full textFedorova Z. L., Parenek O. Yu., Ilina L. A.
Effect of herbal flour and probiotic in diet for poultry of gene pool breeds on intestinal microbiome, fat deposition and foliculogenesis
Probiotics are used in poultry farming for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of gastrointestinal tract, immune stimulation, correction of dysbacteriosis of digestive tract, and for replacement of antibiotics in compound feed. Increasing the fiber level in diet for poultry is considered as one of the nutrition strategies with the aim of reduction of the frequency of problems in the gastrointestinal tract as well. The purpose of research is to study the effect of grass meal and probiotic in diet for poultry on the intestinal microbiota, fat deposition and folliculogenesis. The experiment had been conducted on meat-and-egg type of hens of Amrox and Sussex breeds. From 18 weeks of age, within 12 weeks hens of the control groups were fed a normal diet, in the I experimental group 10 % of the usual diet was replaced with alfalfa grass flour, and in the II experimental group 10 % of the diet was replaced with grass flour with addition of enzyme preparation “Cellobacterin-T”, produced by Biotrof Ltd. Feeding grass meal along with probiotic positively affected the metabolic processes in body, so the amount of abdominal fat in carcass decreased. Fat reduction exceeded 20 % in poultry of experimental groups. It has been also determined that the number of maturing follicles in the ovaries of hens in experimental groups was 25-64 % higher, which indicates a positive effect of the experimental diet on potential egg production. Analysis of cecum contents in digestive tract of hens using the modern molecular genetic method T-RFLP showed that use of grass meal in diet for poultry along with Cellobacterin-T probiotic contributed to formation of useful microflora, as well as to decrease in the number of undesirable actinomycetes and pathogenic mycoplasmas in gastrointestinal tract of hens. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of State program of FSBRI “Federal Research Center for Livestock – VIZH n.a. Academy Member Ernst” (topic ААА-А-А18-118021590129-9).

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textPetrovets V. R.
Economic and mathematical model of bee colonies housing in two-block hive with combined technological partition
One of the main directions of increasing the economic efficiency of bee products is increase in productivity of bee colonies with economical expenditure of material resources, primarily use of such basic means as new design bee hive. A completely new design of a two-block bee hive is proposed, allowing two families of bees in one house. The two-block bee hive allows to use a simple technological partition to combine two different families with their uterus and get one super-strong family. In two-block hives, the main drawback of one-block hives has been eliminated – significant weight of hive body, which restrains increase in productivity of beekeeper and prevents decrease in product cost price. The volume of a two-block bee hive and the parameters of a combined technological partition, which were obtained as a result of observations and longterm experiments, have been justified. Economic and mathematical model of bee colonies development when housed in two block hive with combined technological partition is presented. Practical calculation of the economic potential of two-block bee hive has been made. Substantiation of regularity of obtaining high results in housing and peaceful unification of bee colonies in a two-block bee hive with a technological combined partition is given. Keeping bees in the developed two-block hives opens up great prospects in the field of beekeeping.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textGrudanov V. Ya., Torgan A. B., Barsukov V. G.
Rheological modeling of pasta dough flow processes in channels of convergent-divergent inserts of molding matrix
One of efficient directions for pasta press designs modernization is installation of special conical-and-cylindrical inserts in the matrix wells in front of the dies having, like Venturi tubes, narrowing zones (convergent), expansion (divergent) and a cylindrical path located between them. However, rheological aspects of such method of forming tool modernizing in relation to pasta presses have not been studied, recommendations for structural elements calculation and design have not been developed. All this is a significant obstacle for using the method in engineering and industrial practice. The research purpose is to develop rheological models the pasta dough flow in the conical-cylindrical channels of convergent-divergent inserts and to evaluate with their help the impact of structural dimensions and rheological properties on resistance to pasta dough flow. Pasta dough was considered as a rheological complex nonlinearly viscous plastic material. In technical calculations contribution of shear strength was neglected and a rheological analysis was performed using the Oswald-de-Vila power law equation. Analytical dependences obtained make it possible to calculate the pressure drops in the convergent-divergent insert and its elements. Numerical modeling was performed and calculated data were obtained regarding the impact of dimensions of structural elements of the insert and rheological parameters of pasta dough on its resistance to viscous flow. The results obtained can form the basis of engineering and technological calculations in design of convergent-divergent inserts for laboratory and industrial matrices of pasta presses.

UpScientists of Belarus

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Oscar Karlovich Kedrov-Zikhman (To the 135th Anniversary of Birthday)

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Mikhail Grigorievich Chizhevskiy (To the 125th Anniversary of Birthday)

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Stepan Gordeevich Skoropanov (To the 110th Anniversary of Birthday)

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